Title: Steamer docking, Jacksonville, Fla
Date: between 1910 and 1920
The steamer is ‘Arapahoe’.
Title: Steamer docking, Jacksonville, Fla
Date: between 1910 and 1920
The steamer is ‘Arapahoe’.
Title: U.S.S. Newark
Date: between 1891 and 1901
Photographer: Detroit Publishing Company
The first USS Newark (C-1) was a United States Navy protected cruiser, the eighth protected cruiser launched by the United States. In design, she succeeded the “ABC” cruisers Atlanta, Boston, and Chicago with better protection, higher speed, and a uniform 6-inch gun armament. Four additional protected cruisers (C-2 through C-5) were launched for the USN prior to Newark.
She was laid down by William Cramp and Sons of Philadelphia on 12 June 1888, launched on 19 March 1890, sponsored by Miss Annie Boutelle, the daughter of Representative Charles A. Boutelle of Maine, and commissioned on 2 February 1891, Captain Silas Casey III in command.
Newark was designed in 1885 by the Navy’s Bureau of Construction and Repair and Bureau of Steam Engineering, based on specifications developed by a special advisory board convened by Secretary of the Navy William C. Whitney. The new board was convened when Whitney felt the Naval Advisory Board’s design was inadequate. Newark’s uniform main armament of twelve 6-inch guns resulted from the need to mount guns in sponsons to increase their arc of fire. Rear Admiral Edward Simpson, president of the Naval Advisory Board, commented that it was impossible to mount 8-inch guns on sponsons in a 4,000-ton ship. She also had a complete armored deck in accordance with European practice.
Newark was armed with 12 6-inch (152 mm)/30 caliber Mark 3 guns in sponsons along the sides. This allowed ahead and astern fire by up to four guns. Secondary armament was four 6-pounder (57 mm (2.2 in)) guns, four 3-pounder (47 mm (1.85 in)) Hotchkiss revolving cannon, two 1-pounder (37 mm (1.5 in)) Hotchkiss revolving cannon, and four .45 caliber (11.4 mm) Gatling guns. Six 14-inch (356 mm) torpedo tubes were included in the design but never mounted.
Newark had 2 in (51 mm) gun shields and a 3 in (76 mm) conning tower. The complete armored deck was up to 3 in (76 mm) on its sloped sides and aft, 2 in (51 mm) amidships and forward. This was a significant improvement from the 1.5 in (38 mm) partial deck of Chicago.
The engineering plant included four coal-fired locomotive boilers producing 160 psi (1,100 kPa) steam, with two horizontal triple expansion engines totaling 8,500 ihp (6,300 kW) driving two shafts for a speed of 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph). Like other US Navy ships of the 1880s, she was built with a sail rig to increase cruising range, later removed. The ship carried up to 400 tons of coal, with a cruising range as built of 3,922 nmi (7,264 km; 4,513 mi) at 10 kn (19 km/h; 12 mph); this could be increased to 850 tons for a range of 8,333 nmi (15,433 km; 9,589 mi).
In 1898 Newark’s 6-inch guns were converted to rapid firing. She was rebuilt in 1901-02 with 6-inch (152 mm)/40 caliber Mark 3 guns, with the secondary armament augmented or replaced by six 3-inch (76 mm)/50 caliber guns. The 3-inch guns were removed in 1908, and all armament was removed prior to her service as a hospital ship beginning in 1913.
Newark operated off the Atlantic coast for ten months, taking part in maneuvers and exercises until detached on 8 December at Norfolk Navy Yard. There she remained, undergoing post-shakedown overhaul until being assigned on 11 March 1892 to the North Atlantic Squadron and sailing on 14 March for the West Indies. The cruiser operated in Caribbean waters and off the lower east coast, showing the flag in West Indies ports until returning to Norfolk on 5 June where she was made flagship of Rear Admiral Andrew E. K. Benham, Commander of the newly formed South Atlantic Squadron, on 25 June.
She departed on 17 July for Cádiz, Spain to participate in the ceremonies commemorating the 400th Anniversary of Columbus’ sailing. Arriving on 30 July, she remained until 2 August then sailed for Genoa, Columbus’ birthplace, arriving one month later to continue the celebration. Putting out from Genoa on 25 August, Newark cruised the Mediterranean and the Adriatic, visiting many ports until arriving on 11 February 1893 at Cádiz to take in tow a full size reproduction of caravel Niña and sailing on 18 February for home. Transferred to the Naval Review Fleet for temporary duty on 1 March, the cruiser arrived at Havana on 21 March, parting with Niña there, thence sailing to Hampton Roads and New York where she picked up the caravel once more and proceeded down the St. Lawrence River to Quebec, leaving the little ship there on 11 June and returning to Norfolk on 22 June.
Newark next sailed on 20 September, this time for Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to protect American interests, arriving on 20 October and remaining until 1 April 1894. The warship then operated off the South American coast with the South Atlantic Squadron, making one cruise to South Africa from August to October 1894 and another the same time the following year, before returning to Norfolk on 27 April 1896. Assigned to the North Atlantic Station on 4 May, she joined her squadron at New York 25 June and engaged in patrol duty and exercises off the southeastern coast until decommissioning at Norfolk 6 March 1897.
Following extensive overhaul, Newark recommissioned on 23 May 1898, shortly after the declaration of war on Spain, she sailed on 13 June for Key West and then Cuba, joining the blockade on 30 June. Cruising in Cuban waters throughout the summer, the warship bombarded the port of Manzanillo on 12 August and on the following day accepted its surrender. After the battle of Santiago de Cuba, she participated in the final destruction of Admiral Cervera’s fleet through bombardment of the burned hulks. Newark returned to New York on 26 November 1898.
Departing New York on 23 March 1899, the cruiser steamed down the coast of South America on patrol, stopping at numerous ports along the way. In the middle of her cruise, on 7 April, she was ordered to proceed through the Straits of Magellan to San Francisco. The ship, low on coal, was forced to put into Port Low, Chile, from 31 May to 22 June to cut wood(!) for fuel. Finally arriving Mare Island Navy Yard on 4 September, Newark underwent repairs and then sailed on 17 October via Honolulu for the Philippines arriving Cavite on 25 November to support the U.S. Army in the Philippine–American War. The warship took station off Vigan, Luzon, landed troops for garrison duty, then moved on to Aparri on 10 December, receiving the surrender of insurrectionists in the provinces of Cagayan, Isabela, and Bataan.
On 19 March 1900, she sailed for Hong Kong to rendezvous with the monitor USS Monadnock on 22 March and convoy that ship to Cavite, arriving on 3 April and staying there until sailing for Yokohama on 24 April, arriving three days later. The ship then hoisted the flag of Rear Admiral Louis Kempff, Assistant-Commander of the Asiatic Station and sailed on 20 May for China to help land reinforcements to relieve the legations under siege by the Boxers at Peking. Arriving Tientsin on 22 May, Newark operated in that port and out of Taku and Chefoo, protecting American interests and aiding the relief expedition under Vice Admiral Edward Hobart Seymour, R.N., until sailing at the end of July for Kure, Japan, and then Cavite where she hoisted the pennant of the Senior Squadron Commander in the Philippines. She sailed for home in mid-April 1901, via Hong Kong, Ceylon and Suez, arriving Boston late July 1901. She decommissioned there on 29 July.
Newark recommissioned on 3 November 1902, Commander Richard Wainwright in command and sailed on 14 December for duty in southern waters. For the next two years she operated in the West Indies and off the coast of South America as part of the North Atlantic Fleet. Returning to Norfolk briefly on 27 October 1904 to 9 January 1905, she resumed her duties in the West Indies for the first six months of the year and then in June, following exercises off Virginia, was assigned as a training ship to the United States Naval Academy. Placed in reserve at Annapolis on 15 September, she was restored to full duty on 3 May 1906 for her second east coast training cruise. Following this duty, she put into Norfolk on 13 September where she embarked a Marine detachment and sailed for Cuba on the 17th. The veteran cruiser returned home on 19 October and decommissioned at New York Navy Yard on 9 November.
Loaned to the New York Naval Militia on 23 March 1907, she recommissioned exactly one year later for duty as a station ship at the Naval Station, Guantánamo Bay, Cuba. Arriving on 2 April 1908, she served on this duty until returning to Norfolk on 5 December 1912 to be placed in reserve on the 31st. Newark decommissioned on 16 June 1912 and was stricken from the Navy List on 26 June.
The old cruiser continued to serve her country following her Navy service. Turned over to the Public Health Service, she served as quarantine hulk for the hospital in Providence, Rhode Island, until 1918 when she returned to the Navy to serve throughout World War I as an annex to the Naval Hospital, Newport, Rhode Island. Later transferred to New York, she returned to the Public Health Service at Providence, in May 1919. On 7 July 1926 she was again returned to the Navy Department for disposal and was sold on 7 September.
Title: U.S.S. Brooklyn
Date: between 1896 and 1901
Photographer: Detroit Publishing Company
The second USS Brooklyn (ACR-3/CA-3) was the third United States Navy armored cruiser, the only one to be named at commissioning for a city rather than a state.
Ordered for $3,450,420.29 (hull and machinery), she was launched on 2 October 1895 by William Cramp and Sons Ship and Engine Building Company of Philadelphia; sponsored by Miss Ida May Schieren, daughter of Charles A. Schieren, Mayor of Brooklyn, New York; and commissioned on 1 December 1896, Captain Francis Augustus Cook in command.
Design and construction
Brooklyn was said to be an improved New York at the time of her completion. She was also designed by the Navy Department and was about 1,000 tons larger, which allowed for a raised forecastle for better seakeeping. However, Brooklyn sacrificed armor for improved armament. She had eight 8-inch guns compared to New York’s six, and all were in twin turrets. The secondary armament was increased in caliber from New York’s 4-inch guns to 5-inch guns. Brooklyn had her turrets in a “lozenge” arrangement (one each fore and aft, one on each side) and also had a tumblehome hull, which allowed the side turrets to fire dead ahead and astern. She was the only US Navy ship built with this turret arrangement. The tumblehome hull and “lozenge” arrangement were rare in the US Navy, but at the time were prevalent in the French Navy and in French-designed Russian ships, such as the French Magenta and the Russian Tsesarevich.
Compared with New York, Brooklyn had a 3 in (76 mm) belt versus 4 in (102 mm), 8 in (203 mm) barbettes versus 10 in (254 mm), and the same turret and deck armor.
Brooklyn as built had a main armament of eight 8 in (203 mm)/35 caliber Mark 3 and/or Mark 4 breech-loading rifles in four twin Mark 8 turrets in a “lozenge” arrangement. The forward and starboard side turrets were electric-powered, while the other two turrets were steam-powered. This was to test which system was better, and as a result the Navy adopted electric power for future turret designs. Secondary armament was twelve 5 in (127 mm)/40 caliber rapid fire (RF) guns in sponsons along the sides, along with twelve 6-pounder (57 mm (2.2 in)) Driggs-Schroeder RF guns, four 1-pounder (37 mm (1.5 in)) Driggs-Schroeder saluting guns, and five 18 inch (450 mm) torpedo tubes. Some additional weapons on wheeled carriages were carried for use by landing parties; these included two 3-inch (76 mm) field artillery pieces and four Gatling guns.
Brooklyn had significantly less protection than New York, to allow for increased armament. The belt was 3 in (76 mm) thick and 8 feet 6 inches (2.59 m) deep, of which 5 ft (1.5 m) was below the waterline. It protected only the machinery spaces. The armored deck was 6 in (152 mm) thick on its sloped sides and 3 in (76 mm) in the flat middle amidships, but only 2 1⁄2 in (64 mm) at the ends. The gun turrets had up to 5 1⁄2 in (140 mm) of armor, on 8–4 in (203–102 mm) barbettes with 3 in (76 mm) protecting the ammunition hoists. The secondary gun sponsons had 4 in (102 mm), while the conning tower was 8 1⁄2 in (216 mm) thick.
Brooklyn was intended to be relatively fast at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph), and achieved 21.91 knots (40.58 km/h; 25.21 mph) on trials. Her machinery was generally similar to New York, but achieved 1,300 ihp (970 kW) additional horsepower and an extra knot on trials. Four triple-expansion engines totaling 16,000 ihp (12,000 kW) (designed, 18,769 ihp (13,996 kW) on trials) were clutched in tandem, two on each of two shafts. The forward engines could be disconnected to conserve fuel at an economical cruising speed. In the US Navy, only New York shared this feature, which proved something of a liability in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba, when both ships were operating with the forward engines disconnected and did not have time to reconnect them, thus limiting their speed. Seven coal-fired cylindrical boilers, five double-ended and two single-ended, supplied steam to the engines.
Brooklyn’s refits were relatively modest. Her torpedo tubes were removed prior to 1914; one source says by 1903. By 1917 the 5-inch guns had been reduced to eight while two 3 in (76 mm)/50 caliber anti-aircraft guns were added.
Brooklyn’s first assignment was a special cruise to Britain with representatives of the U.S. for the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. The cruiser returned to the east coast in July 1897 and cruised there and in the West Indies until becoming flagship of the Flying Squadron under Commodore W. S. Schley on 28 March 1898.
During the Spanish–American War, the Flying Squadron arrived at Cienfuegos, Cuba on 21 May and established the blockade of that port. On 26 May, the Squadron arrived at Santiago de Cuba, where the Spanish fleet was being held behind the protection of the forts. Brooklyn was a key vessel in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba on 3 July, in which the Spanish Fleet was destroyed. Although she was struck 20 times by whole shot, Brooklyn suffered only one man wounded (Fireman J. Bevins) and one man killed (Chief Yeoman George Henry Ellis).
Brooklyn returned to Tompkinsville, New York on 20 August; cruised along the Atlantic coast and in Caribbean waters; participated in the Spanish–American War Victory Celebration at New York on 5 October; and in the Dewey Celebration at New York in September 1899. She left Hampton Roads on 16 October and sailed via the Suez Canal to Manila, Philippine Islands, where she arrived on 16 December. She became flagship of the Asiatic Squadron and participated in the China Relief Expedition (8 July – 11 October 1900. She made a cruise to the Dutch East Indies, Australia and New Zealand from 10 April – 7 August 1901; the last stage was to Melbourne, Auckland, Wellington and Sydney. She remained with the Asiatic Squadron until 1 March 1902, when she sailed for the United States via the Suez Canal and arrived at the New York Navy Yard on 1 May.
On 20 May 1902, Brooklyn was at Havana, Cuba for the ceremonies to transfer the authority on that island from the United States Government to the Cuban Government. In June–July, she was on special duty in connection with the funeral of the late British Ambassador to the United States, Lord Pauncefote. During the next four years, she cruised with the North Atlantic Fleet and the European Squadron. She was involved in the intervention in Syria from 8 September to 17 October 1903 as well as the intervention in Djibouti from 21 November 1903 to 18 January 1904.
Brooklyn returned to New York on 26 May 1905. On 7 June, as flagship of Rear Admiral Charles Dwight Sigsbee, she sailed for Cherbourg, France, where the remains of the late John Paul Jones were received aboard and brought to America. Upon arrival at Annapolis, Commodore Jones’ remains were transferred ashore to a receiving vault at the United States Naval Academy with appropriate ceremonies on 23 July.
Following a naval militia cruise (from 3–23 August 1905) and a tour in the Mediterranean (from 28 December 1905 – 8 May 1906), Brooklyn went into reserve at the League Island Navy Yard in Philadelphia on 16 May 1906. Except for a short period (from 30 June–2 August 1906) in commission for special service at Havana, Cuba, she remained in reserve until the spring of 1907. From 12 April – 4 December 1907, Brooklyn served as part of the permanent display at the Jamestown Exposition in Jamestown, Virginia. Following her return to Philadelphia, Brooklyn went into reserve again on 21 December.
Placed out of commission on 23 June 1908, she was commissioned in ordinary on 2 March 1914. She was assigned to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet and served as receiving ship at Boston Navy Yard from 24 July 1914 – 13 March 1915. She was placed in full commission at Philadelphia on 9 May 1915 and served on Neutrality Patrol around Boston Harbor until November, when she sailed to the Asiatic Station to serve as flagship for the Commander-in-Chief of the Asiatic Fleet. She attended to regular military and diplomatic duties in China, Japan, and Russia until September 1919, when she became the flagship of Commander, Division 1, Asiatic Fleet. In January 1920, she was assigned to the Pacific Fleet as flagship of Commander, Destroyer Squadrons, and remained there until 15 January 1921. She was redesignated as CA-3 (heavy cruiser) on 17 July 1920 as part of a fleetwide redesignation plan. Brooklyn was placed out of commission for the final time at Mare Island Navy Yard on 9 March 1921 and sold for disposal on 20 December.
Title: Production. B-17 heavy bomber. Another mighty B-17F (Flying Fortress) bomber sets out on a test flight from the airfield of Boeing’s Seattle plant. The Flying Fortress has performed with great credit in the South Pacific, over Germany and elsewhere. It is a four-engine heavy bomber capable of flying at high altitudes.
Date: December 1942
Photographer: Andreas Feininger